Aisyah Qistina Zulkefli, Mirza Adriana Murad, Nuren Azra Nazeri, Harumi Veny, Junaidah Jai and Noor Hidayu Abdul Rani

Keywords: biodiesel, transesterification, calcium oxide, banana peel, eggshell

Abstract: To face the crucial demand for fossil fuel nowadays, biodiesel can be the safest and wise choice to replace fossil fuel in vehicles. Biodiesel can be produced through the transesterification of vegetable oil using a catalyst. Most of the catalyst used in biodiesel production is from chemical-based, which are not environmentally friendly. Thus, in this study, we aim to produce a catalyst from abundant waste materials which are eggshells and banana peels for the production of biodiesel from palm oil. The eggshell and banana peels are known to have a high content of Calcium oxide (CaO) and Potassium (K) respectively. Calcium oxide and Potassium Hydroxide are well-known solid catalysts used in transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. In this research, the waste eggshells and banana peels were collected from restaurants and houses and were washed thoroughly by tap water to remove the impurities. Then, they were placed under the sun for 20 minutes to dry off the moisture on the surface and proceeded to crush and sieving process by using mortar or grinder. The powder was dried in the oven at 100°C for 24 hours to completely remove the moisture. The powder was then calcined in a muffle furnace at high temperatures. The calcined ashes were analyzed for their characterization and qualitative analysis using FTIR and SEM. The presence of CaO and K was confirmed from FTIR and the analysis showed that the effective catalyst with a high content of CaO and K is the banana peel followed by eggshell. The effectiveness of the catalytic activity was further proven by its morphology and porosity of the surface area from SEM result. The catalyst has been used in the transesterification of waste cooking oil for biodiesel synthesis and had given promising results. In conclusion, banana peels and eggshells are promising not only as catalyst with less cost and environmentally friendly but also, they have commercialized potential to be used in small-scale Biodiesel production, such as in villages or rural areas. 

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